Teachers for A Change

Human Source Information and facts Units

The purpose of this paper should be to recognize other businesses which have confronted comparable human means difficulties in regards to information technological know-how. Via benchmarking different providers we could learn how other corporations have taken care of sure human sources issues linked to facts engineering, information devices, new technological know-how, and details safety. An Total Investigation continues to be finished making use of research on IBM Europe, Ameriprise Economical, Terasen Pipelines, Shaw’s Supermarkets, CS Stars LLC, IBM, WORKSource Inc., and Toshiba America Professional medical Units, Inc. This paper also involves 8 synopses of companies facing very similar issue to Individuals within the reading.

New Know-how

Along with the switching globe and regular new technologies that is available, professionals must know about the technological know-how that can increase efficiency in their business. Human source information and facts units (HRIS) have progressively remodeled because it was first launched at Normal Electrical within the fifties. HRIS has gone from a essential system to convert handbook information and facts maintaining units into computerized systems, to the HRIS devices which can be used today. Human source professionals started to see the potential for new programs for the computer. The idea was to combine many of the several human useful resource capabilities. The end result was the 3rd generation in the computerized HRIS, a function-loaded, broad-based mostly, self-contained HRIS. The third era took methods much over and above currently being mere facts repositories and established applications with which human useful resource professionals could do considerably more (Byars, 2004).

Quite a few organizations have seen a need to remodel the way in which Human Source operations are performed in an effort to keep up with new know-how and increasing numbers of workers. Terasen Pipelines moved its headquarters from Vancouver to Calgary for being closer to your oil and realized A serious progress in staff. Prior to now recording holding was carried out on paper and with spreadsheets. Mangers at Terasen understood that there was a need to alter to a more computerized program and appeared into various HRIS vendors. By earning the move to a HRIS system, Terasen will be able to keep extra exact data in addition to improved prepare for future expansion. Yet another corporation that observed the benefits of keeping up with new engineering is WORKSource Inc. To satisfy the obstacle of dealing with a hundred new staff, WORKSource Inc. obtained Internet-centered technological innovation programs from GHG Corp. like electronic fork out stub, Digital timesheet software program, time-off process, and human source data technique (“Recommendations,” 2006). By adapting these new systems, WORKSource was capable to reduce squander and price.

The web is definitely an more and more popular technique to recruit applicants, study systems and conduct other vital features in enterprise. Providing human source providers on the net (eHR) supports a lot more efficient selection, storage, distribution, and exchange of knowledge (Friesen, 2003). An intranet is usually a form of community utilized by companies to share info to men and women in the Corporation. An intranet connects individuals to individuals and other people to data and awareness inside the Corporation; it serves being an “information hub” for the entire organization. Most corporations set up intranets largely for employees, but they are able to lengthen to business enterprise associates and perhaps clients with ideal security clearance (Byars & Rue, 2004).

Applications of HRIS

The effectiveness of HRIS, the methods are able to produce more effective and speedier outcomes than can be carried out on paper. Several of the numerous purposes of HRIS are: Clerical apps, applicant research expenditures, possibility administration, training management, teaching experiences, economic arranging, turnover Examination, succession preparing, versatile-Positive aspects administration, compliance with authorities restrictions, attendance reporting and Investigation, human source organizing, incident reporting and prevention and strategic scheduling. Along with the many different applications of HRIS, it is obscure how the packages reward organizations with out investigating organizations that have by now benefited from such courses.

One such organization is IBM. IBM contains a paperless on-line enrollment program for all of its personnel. Not simply has the online enrollment saved the company 1.2 million per annum on printing and mailing expenses, the workers enjoy working with the net plan. “Since we started featuring on line enrollment, we’ve uncovered that personnel want Net access,” Donnelly [Senior Communications Expert] says, so they can go surfing at home rather than from the company intranet. So the corporation has actually been Functioning To place in position an online-centered enrollment system that staff members and retirees can obtain from wherever (Huering, 2003). By employing the adaptable-Advantages software HRIS has to offer, IBM was capable to Slash fees and give staff the liberty to discover their Added benefits on their own time and tempo.

One more firm which has taken benefit of HRIS applications is Shaw’s Supermarkets. To ensure that Shaw’s to higher take care of its workforce, the corporation determined it had been the perfect time to centralize the HR functions. After taking a look at distinctive selections, Shaw’s decided to put into action an Worker Self Provider (ESS) method. Using self-assistance applications produces a favourable condition for HR. ESS provides HR far more time to target strategic issues, such as workforce management, succession setting up, and compensation administration, when at the same time strengthening service to staff members and managers, and ensuring that their details is correct. Using this solution, staff have on line access to varieties, training materials, Positive aspects data along with other payroll connected info (Koven, 2002). By offering staff entry to their private details and a chance to update or modify their information and facts as required, HR was given more the perfect time to focus on other issues. Understanding the different programs HRIS provides will give corporations the chance to improve employee effectiveness and minimize costs.

Measuring the Usefulness of HRIS

The evaluation must determine if the HRIS has executed approximately its expectations and If your HRIS is getting used to its whole advantage (Byars & Rue, 2004). One of many most significant worries confronted by public personnel executives these days is measuring the functionality of their human means information program (HRIS) To be able to justify the value-added contribution of the HRIS to accomplishing the Firm’s mission (Hagood & Friedman, 2002). Implementing an HRIS application may well feel a necessary stem for an organization, but Except it will be a powerful tool for HR operations, it will not help improve effectiveness and should hinder it instead.

Just one organization that implemented a HRIS technique is Toshiba The united states Professional medical Techniques, Inc. (TAMS). TAMS place all worker Positive aspects data on the internet and designed an open enrollment choice when TAMS modified healthcare companies. Presently upon rolling out the UltiPro portal [new HRIS technological know-how] to staff, TAMS commenced observing advancements, by having an approximated 70% increase in open up enrollment efficiency (Wojcik, 2004). By figuring out the effectiveness of the new software, TAMS was capable to comprehend the advantages of The brand new HRIS program.

Security of HRIS

The privateness of personnel data is becoming a major concern in recent years. With identification theft getting to be a common trouble, staff members have become much more delicate about who sees their particular data, and the safety it really is saved in. By ensuring that worker information and facts that is certainly kept while in the HRIS is related to the corporate and ensuring there is proscribed access (password protection) to these kinds of information and facts, companies might make its workforce more secure with the protection of their information and facts. No matter whether electronic or paper, personnel information should be addressed with great treatment. Developing safety and stop-consumer privileges requires a harmony of incorporating, HR policy, program information and day-to-day functions (O’Connell, 1994).

A person company that confronted A significant stability challenge was CS Stars, LLC. CS Stars misplaced keep track of of one of its computer systems that contained personalized information that provided names, addresses and social stability figures of personnel compensation benefits. The bigger issue was that CS Stars failed to inform the affected consumers and staff members in regards to the lacking Laptop. Even though the pc was retrieved and no details appeared to are actually harmed, several staff members missing their perception of stability with the company. Ny’s Data Safety Breach and Notification Legislation, successful in December 2005, calls for enterprises that maintain computerized info which includes private details to notify the operator of the data of any breach of the safety with the system promptly next discovery, if the personal facts was, or is fairly considered to are already, obtained by someone devoid of valid authorization (Cadrain, 2007).

An additional enterprise that skilled a breach in security is Ameriprise Monetary. In late 2005, a pc that contained private information on purchasers and staff was stolen. For the reason that a lot of the workers at Ameriprise get their pcs in between operate and residential, the organization identified there was a have to put far more stability into These desktops. Ameriprise created confident all staff members had the new safety suite installed on their desktops. By responding rapidly to the necessity For additional safety, Ameriprise produced confident all info is becoming stored protected. Making certain staff info is stored as safe as you possibly can there’ll be extra have faith in in the organization along with the HR workforce working with that facts.


IBM, Terasen Pipeline, CS Stars LCC, and Toshiba The united states Professional medical Techniques, Inc. are superior examples of firms facing challenges much like human assets info engineering and human methods info programs. All these firms know the value of new technological know-how, human assets information systems, and information security. The remainder of this paper gives synopses of extra providers struggling with human resources concerns, how the corporation responded to the issues, and also the outcomes of the corporation’s responses.

Providers Benchmarked

IBM Europe

The problem:

IBM is a world Corporation featuring research, computer software, components, IT consulting, small business and management consulting, ring and financing. It employs around 340,000 persons, Talking one hundred sixty five languages across seventy five nations, and serving purchasers in 174 countries. In January 2007, IBM proven a independent “new media” functionality in its company communication Section. IBM most important objective is to teach, aid, and market systems that utilize social networking. IBM Europe decided to extend inner conversation by running a blog pointers. The recognition was that running a blog was already happening amongst IBMers, just in an unregulated way. In an identical way, institutionalizing a perform to deal especially with new media just isn’t a company move, or setting up from scratch. It’s a reaction to the problems previously emerging in the business. Now that Those people systems are below, folks are making use of them, they’re growing and there below to remain-we’re just intending to put some composition close to them making sure that we can easily make an effort to enhance their use.” The users make your mind up what technologies they would like to use And exactly how they wish to use them. That main thought is that IBM understands which they should remember to regard The truth that social networking are social. IBM had the necessity to link its 340,000 world-wide staff members extra effectively.

The Reaction:

IBM’s intent all around social media has now been formally formalized. From January 22 2007, the business recognized a independent “new media” perform inside of its corporate communication Division. “Its remit: To work as skilled consultants inside and out of doors IBM on concerns regarding weblogs, wikis, RSS and various social websites applications. The most crucial thought is to coach, aid and promote plans that make the most of these applications. IBM includes a record of getting a t the forefront of technology dependent company communication. In the multimedia brainstorming “WorldJam” that designed news headlines back again in 2001 through which fifty,000 staff members throughout the world joined an actual time, on line concept-sharing session about the business’s course. IMB has normally geared up by itself to use breakthrough systems to ascertain a two-way dialogue with its staff. The necessity for social networking was necessary and will no longer wait around.

The Outcome:

In the previous few a long time IBM has long been acknowledged as getting the vanguard of social-media use: IBM was on of the initial Fortune five hundred firms to acquire behind collaborative wikis, printed inside blogging tips way back to 2003, and it is now transferring quick outside of RSS and podcasts into videocasting and “Digital planet” systems like Second Everyday living. The intranet search facility extends to all areas of the website, which include new media aspects. When an personnel logs on to their portal an executes a key term look for, the effects they get again not only originate from the main intranet pages, but incorporate success from IBM discussion boards, wikis, blogs and podcast/videocasts tags. IMB has an knowing that staff members are no more keeping in a business their total lives. It’s just not like that anymore. In Belgium such as over 50 p.c of two,three hundred workers have already been there much less than five years. The business has come to the conclusion that with an significantly younger and cellular workforce, the chance is the fact an staff inhabitants stuffed with a younger era, for whom these applications are portion and parcel of lifestyle, will not be that far-off. In years to come IBM will have to deal with worker base for which running a blog is simply the purely natural way to interact in excess of an internet platform. IBM has designed centralized platforms for many resources that drop underneath its remit, which incorporates wikis. For Philippe Borremans, new media direct Europe for IBM, has the opportunity company programs of the wiki include two wide Positive aspects: Collaborating and know-how sharing. IBM has scored some notable successes on the two fronts inside the around 5000 wiki pages now up and operating in the Business. The company has been a large select-up in interest in podcasting over the past eighteen months producing can appear to be such a complex talent, While individuals experience they could discuss much more freely than they might publish. Probably the most continually well-known IBM podcasts, with about twenty,000 downloads a week.

Ameriprise Fiscal

The specific situation:

The Section of Justice survey estimates that 3.6 million U.S. homes had been victims of identity theft in 2004. Trafficking in personalized day goes past U.S. borders: the Ny Instances studies that stolen fiscal facts is frequently distributed among individuals of on the web buying and selling boards, as well as the consumers are usually located in Russia, Ukraine, and the center East. One particular reason shoppers are worried about facts stability could be the prevalent publicity produced by breaches at monetary services business. In late December 2205, an Ameriprise Fiscal staff’s laptop that contained unencrypted knowledge on close to 230,000 consumers and advisors was stolen from the automobile. Other financial expert services agency, together with Citigroup and Bank of The united states, also acknowledge substantial-scale consumer knowledge losses in 2005. President of NCS, Rita Dew, a compliance consulting business in Delray Beach, Florida, says that the Securities and Trade Fee calls for investment advisors to get guidelines and techniques that tackle the administrative, technical, and Actual physical safeguards connected with customer data and information.

The Reaction:

Ameriprise Financial needed to battle back and needed to put into action “layers of security.” It can be crucial for employees who their Main company Personal computer, and staff on a regular basis transport the computer among home, Office environment, and Assembly sites. The vulnerability of this arrangement and the necessity for a security program software is way essential.

The result:

Staff who will be transporting lab tops ought to set up the Steganos Protection Suite on their own Pc. This program permits staff members to create an encrypted Digital travel over the laptop that serves as information storage Protected. Staff members outlets all customer similar data and tax preparing software program database about the encrypted push, which staff has create with one particular gigabyte of storage space. The smartest thing is usually that when an staff turns off the pc the knowledge is stored “Secure”, the computer software automatically encrypts the virtual travel’s details. The program also generates encrypted backup information, which staff retail store on CDs in a fireproof Secure. This should keep the info safe if any staff’s notebook is stolen or If your travel is faraway from the laptop. Other economic advisors are depending on encryption equally out and in of the Office environment. Other applications that happen to be getting used to safeguard customer’s info are RAID Amount one procedure to store information within the drives that happen to be encrypted with WinMagic’s SecureDocs software. Encryption ensures that anybody who steals the pc will probably be Definitely unable to read the info, even by connecting it to another Pc as being a “slave travel. This has presented a lot of fiscal advisors the greatest relief.

Terasen Pipelines

The problem:

Terasen Pipelines is really a subsidiary of Terasen Inc. situated in Vancouver, Canada and is located in many provinces and U.S. states. In 2001 the organization adjusted its headquarters to Calgary for being nearer on the oil. With the big transfer, the organization went via a development spurt. With the business in a number of locations as well as the growing numbers of workers, the HR department saw a necessity to locate a new process to maintain extra exact documents.

The Reaction:

Previously Terasen experienced saved documents on paper and with spreadsheets and with the growth of the company, this system isn’t going to perform along with prior to now. As a way to compensate for foreseeable future development, Terasen started to look into HRIS businesses to assist with the HR operations. After looking into different corporations, Hewitt’s application company supplier model with eCyborg was uncovered to generally be the appropriate suit.

The end result:

Although there was trouble adapting to a brand new strategy for recordkeeping, Terasen was capable of finding a system that may help assistance the current and foreseeable future advancement of the company. The good news is, a few of the HR staff members experienced working experience dealing with an HRIS and ended up in a position to assistance their colleagues visualize new procedures, as aided by a technique. Just one concept frequently voiced through this process was: “You fellas Never know how tough we are Doing the job whenever we could make it so much easier with a process that can do loads of this for us. You do not often have to run to The cupboard for the worker file just to get primary info. It may possibly all be at your fingertips.” (Vu, 2005). So as to aid Terasen simplicity the HR load of utilizing a fresh HR process, the administration of Terasen was certain to search for a seller that can help apply and keep a HRIS process. This method has helped Terasen far better prepare for present-day and future growth.

Shaw’s Supermarkets

Your situation:

Shaw’s Supermarkets is the 2nd most significant supermarket chain in New England. With a workforce of thirty,000 Positioned at one hundred eighty retailers during 6 states, Shaw’s HR staff is accountable for handling personnel’ private information. Their staff mix consists of approximately 70 per cent part-time personnel, consisting of scholars, senior citizens, 2nd-position component-timers, and job element-timers. One third in the workforce is manufactured up of union associates, and Shaw’s employees oversees the corporate’s involvement with three unions and six individual contracts (Koven, 2002). To be able to help deal with the workforce, the HR staff became interested in centralizing its HR operations.

The Response:

To be able to centralize HR functions Shaw’s chose to implement an ESS (employee self-assistance) Option. The usage of self-service applications makes a positive condition for HR. ESS provides HR far more time to target strategic troubles, such as workforce administration, succession setting up, and compensation administration, even though at the same time strengthening support to employees and supervisors, and ensuring that their information is precise. Using this Alternative, personnel have on the internet usage of sorts, instruction substance, Advantages facts as well as other payroll associated information and facts.

The result:

Shaw’s has experienced constructive feed-back given that applying the ESS Resolution. “The reaction from our staff has actually been very constructive,” Penney, VP of Compensation and Positive aspects, says. “We even experienced an important increase in our health-related coverage prices, and it absolutely was almost a non-issue as the on the web enrollment featured the program selections, the worker Value, and the organization subsidy. An personnel self-support application can make it quite simple for them to comprehend their contributions and protection selections. I obtained many e-mails from employees declaring this was an awesome modify And just how simple ESS was, which the situation is rarely when employees are deciding on their gain choices.” (Koven, 2002). By providing the employees far more entry to their details they are able to begin to see the reward alternatives available to them. Personnel will also be ready to update their information and facts online, which aids reduce the paperwork on the previous. Shaw’s has also noticed advancement in efficiency due to the fact staff members are updating information and facts in your house, not during do the job hours.

CS Stars, LLC

The problem:
Ny Legal professional Basic Andrew Cuomo has declared that New York State has achieved its first settlement with a business billed with failing to inform shoppers and Many others that their particular information had absent lacking. Cuomo’s Place of work, which enforces the point out’s 2005 Information Safety Breach and Notification Legislation, charged CS STARS LLC, a Chicago-based mostly claims management organization, with failing to provide observe that it had missing keep track of of a pc that contains facts on 540,000 New Yorkers’ personnel’ comp statements.

The Response:

The proprietor on the dropped knowledge, which had been within the custody of CS STARS, was the New York Special Resources Conservation Committee, a company that assists in supplying staff’ comp Added benefits beneath the point out’s staff’ comp law. On May perhaps 9, 2006, a CS STARS staff discovered that a computer was missing that held private facts, including the names, addresses, and Social Stability figures of recipients of personnel’ compensation benefits. But CS Stars waited until eventually June 29, 2006, to inform Exclusive Funds plus the FBI of the safety breach. Since the FBI declared that notice to people may impede its investigation, CS STARS waited until eventually July eight, 2006, to send out notices for the 540,000 New Yorkers afflicted from the breach. On July 25, 2006, the FBI established an employee, of a cleaning contractor, had stolen the computer, plus the lacking computer was located and recovered. Furthermore, the FBI observed that the information to the lacking Pc had not been improperly accessed.

The result:

The big apple’s Information and facts Protection Breach and Notification Legislation, successful in December 2005, needs firms that preserve computerized knowledge which incorporates personal info to notify the operator of the information of any breach of the safety on the program right away following discovery, Should the private information and facts was, or within reason believed to have been, acquired by anyone devoid of legitimate authorization. The law impacts don’t just organizations inside their dealings with their customers, but employers in their purpose as custodians of employees’ personalized details. (Cadrain)

With out admitting to any violation of law, CS STARS agreed to comply with the law and make certain that right notifications will probably be manufactured from the event of any potential breach. The business also agreed to employ far more intensive techniques associated with the security of personal data. CS STARS will pay the Legal professional Normal’s Business office $60,000 for fees connected with this investigation. (Cadrain)


The specific situation:

IBM’s paperless on-line enrollment system, launched in 1999, has proved for being a winner for each the corporation’s one hundred thirty five,000 Lively U.S. staff and the corporation, Based on Cathleen Donnelly, senior communications professional at business headquarters in Armonk, N.Y. The corporation saves $1.two million annually on printing and mailing prices alone, Donnelly states, and the employees’ can make use of a number of technologies to study issues, study software information and facts and obtain conclusion support tools from their desktop computers. (Heuring, 2002)

The Reaction:

A type of equipment, a personal medical Value estimator, allows personnel to determine possible out-of-pocket wellness care costs under Each individual with the approach selections available to them, Donnelly states. Staff members log in personally and therefore are greeted by identify and with critical facts concerning their Gains enrollment, such as the deadlines and when alterations take result. They immediately get entry to health and fitness strategies that are available to them, plus the calculator lets them Examine approximated gain quantities for each system.

“Employees can choose the wellness treatment solutions they anticipate to utilize in a selected calendar year, estimate predicted frequency of use, and compute likely charges beneath Every single program alternative,” Donnelly says. “The feed-back that we have been given from staff members tells us that this Instrument has really aided them to produce a comparison between designs determined by how they take in clinical products and services.” The calculator reveals the two IBM’s expenditures and the employee’s. (Heuring, 2002)

The result:

“Considering the fact that we began featuring on the internet enrollment, we’ve acquired that personnel want web entry,” Donnelly claims, to allow them to log on in the home as an alternative to through the organization intranet. So the corporate has long been Operating To place in place a web-based enrollment method that workers and retirees can access from anywhere.

Staff could get summary info on the plans, drill down into very unique facts and comply with inbound links on the wellness care companies for investigate. Donnelly states the system has acquired substantial marks for comfort for the reason that staff members can “get in and out speedily.”

WORKSource Inc.

The specific situation:

To satisfy the problem of managing a hundred new employees, WORKSource Inc. acquired Website-dependent technology plans from GHG Corp. like electronic paystub, electronic timesheet computer software, time-off method, and human resource information and facts method (“Ideas,” 2006). These equipment enabled CEO Judith Hahn to handling payroll methods proficiently and properly.

The Reaction:

WORKSource has 8 workforce centers, with approximately 108 employees, Found in the course of a six-county region. Beforehand, payroll, benefits, and human sources for the people personnel had been processed and managed by an experienced Employer Business. The business also has fifty two administrative workers in its headquarters Workplace. In the event the agreement Using the PEO terminated on June 30, 2006, Individuals 108 workforce have been immediately moved on the payroll of WORKSource, which intended Hahn’s workload greater than doubled powerful July 2006 (“Guidelines,” 2006).

Hahn, within an job interview with PMR, claimed she relied on LEAN to assist obtain a cope with on what required to improve for her to deal with the enhanced workload. Two years previously, Hahn’s CEO had released her to LEAN, a Japanese management idea of eliminating wasteful steps and motion when finishing processes. “I started to examine as much as you possibly can about LEAN and joined an HR LEAN concentrate team” (“Recommendations,” 2006).

The end result:

Mastering the concepts of LEAN led Hahn to produce and utilize her possess acronym of “Cause” to her Office’s payroll and HR processes. Review the method: map payroll tasks from start out to complete. Do away with squander: ascertain how to complete a payroll undertaking most successfully with no unneeded measures. Analyze alternate options: investigate and Appraise the applicability of latest technology. Market improvements to administration: document the return on financial investment of each and every innovation. Open the lines of conversation: talk overtly—and sometimes—with all stakeholders, which include workers and best management. By no means let negativity: make modify uncomplicated and enjoyment. Give employees plenty of encouragement and time to find out (“Suggestions,” 2006). Judith Hahn was able to put into practice the appropriate human resource features using information and facts devices.

Toshiba The united states Healthcare Units Inc.

The problem:

Lynda Morvik, director of Advantages and human methods info devices at Tustin, California-primarily based Toshiba The usa Healthcare Devices Inc. (TAMS), imagined it could seem sensible so as to add a benefits interaction ingredient to it. By getting every one of the gain information and facts on the internet, the TAMS worker handbook would also be a living doc, enabling Morvik to make adjustments when needed. This kind of was the case halfway through the project, when TAMS improved overall health treatment strategies from Aetna Inc. to United Wellbeing Group Inc (Wojcik, 2004).

The Reaction:

TAMS, an unbiased team corporation of Toshiba Corporation and a world primary supplier of diagnostic medical imaging units and extensive health-related options, which include CT, X-ray, ultrasound, nuclear medication, MRI, and knowledge methods, had been utilizing a payroll service bureau and an in-household Answer for HR that didn’t include effortless-to-use consolidated reporting or an staff portal. Right after assessing UltiPro along with quite a few enterprise useful resource vendors, TAMS selected Ultimate Software program’s giving and went are in September 2002 just after an on-time and on-spending budget implementation. Almost immediately on rolling out the UltiPro portal to employees, TAMS began looking at advancements, by having an approximated 70% increase in open up enrollment performance (Wojcik, 2004).

The end result:

In an effort to grow the utilization of the net past the advantages enrollment system, TAMS has posted a library of paperwork and kinds on its HR portal, such as the Gains handbook, which garnered a 2004 Apex Award for publication excellence. That same year, Business enterprise Coverage magazine also gave TAMS the Digital Benefit Interaction (EBC) award for exceptional accomplishment in communicating worker benefits applications over the internet. To carry on elevating its use of Supreme Software program’s HRMS/payroll Option, TAMS modified the UltiPro portal to fulfill the imaging company’s exclusive requires (Wojcik, 2004). It was entirely integrated with various proprietary purposes produced to handle compensation and effectiveness administration issues making sure that TAMS employees Possess a central area for detailed workforce and payroll information and facts from the Website browser they can accessibility with an individual sign-on (Wojcik, 2004).